TAC Electronic Newsletter
Sunday 18 September 2005
Is Government underestimating deaths in Delmas typhoid and
· Evidence uncovered of far more than the three official typhoid
deaths in Delmas typhoid and diarrhoea outbreak
· Allegations that outbreak started in June
· Community members are unhappy with the response to the outbreak
· Too little water is being supplied to a school in Delmas and children
from the school are getting ill
· No account is being taken of the special needs of people with HIV who
are much more susceptible to illness and death in a diarrhoea outbreak
It has been alleged to TAC by multiple sources that government is
underestimating the number of deaths in the current outbreak of
diarrhoea and typhoid in Delmas, a small town of about 50,000 people in
Mpumalanga Province. An investigation by TAC has found evidence to
support this allegation.
As of the evening of Friday 17 September
2005, the official number of deaths in Delmas ascribed to the current
typhoid outbreak was three. Our investigation has found evidence
supporting the allegation that more people have died. We present this
evidence here, as well as other allegations made by members of the
Delmas community about government's failure to respond to the current
outbreak. We also report on some good work that is being done in Delmas
to control the outbreak.
TAC trainee journalist Sydney Masinga, Mpumalanga provincial
co-ordinator Msanyana Skhosana and TAC volunteer Augustus Dludlu
visited Delmas on Wednesday 14 September. Masinga filed a report after
receiving allegations from staff members at Delmas's Bernice Samuel
that government is underestimating deaths and not responding adequately
to the outbreak. He returned to Delmas on Friday 16 September and
collected evidence to substantiate the allegation of unreported deaths.
Unreported Deaths and Community Dissatisfaction in Delmas
By Sydney Masinga
The Mpumalanga Health Department claimed on Friday that there have been
three typhoid deaths in Delmas and 483 cases of typhoid. Symptoms of
the disease are also being reported to have been first noticed in
August. [Source: online Mail & Guardian, SABC news]
The number of deaths caused by the outbreak of typhoid and diarrhoea
are contradicted by reports I have received by staff members at Delmas
Hospital, claims by the Delmas community and my own investigations.
Two staff members at Delmas Hospital have separately reported to me
that the diarrhoea outbreak started in June and that the number of
deaths has been greater than reported. It has been alleged by the staff
members that the official figures do not include deaths at Delmas
Hospital or people who have died at home. A staff member involved in
processing deaths at the hospital, says that more than 20 people have
died at Delmas Hospital alone, as a consequence of the outbreak.
I spent Friday afternoon locating families of people who contracted
diarrhoea and died. I
located six in just a short space of time. I personally saw three death
certificates stating typhoid as the cause of death and this was still
when the official death toll was two. The other three families
plausible accounts that their lost ones had died as a consequence of
the current diarrhoea outbreak.
I also spoke to community members who
said that Delmas usually has about ten funerals a week, but last week
Saturday there were 21. On Saturday I spoke to a local clergyman,
Pastor Budha, who as part of
his job presides over funerals. He has witnessed an increasing number
of these and has complained to the local newspaper that government is
underestimating the number of deaths.
We also interviewed counsellors and nurses at Delmas Hospital about HIV
and the typhoid outbreak. They did not have knowledge of specific cases
of HIV coupled with typhoid but were concerned that the outbreak would
hit HIV-positive people harder because of their compromised immune
systems. The counsellors said they test about 30 people per week for
about 20 test positive. (Antiretroviral treatment is not yet available
in Delmas. The hospital is being considered for accreditation and one
doctor estimated that implementation would begin in January or February
We spoke to a woman from the local home-based care forum. She said that
since the beginning of the outbreak in June, many more of their
HIV-positive patients had died than usual.
A community meeting on Saturday morning estimated that the number of
deaths due to the typhoid and diarrhoea outbreak was 49.
The CEO of Delmas Hospital denied the allegation
of unreported deaths. He would not confirm any deaths at Delmas
Hospital. He also claimed that the outbreak was under control and
better. He claimed there were no new cases coming in. All of this was
contradicted by another staff member who claimed the outbreak was
getting worse and more cases were being admitted all the time. I
located the family of a 33-year old woman who died on Thursday 15
September at Delmas Hospital. Her death certificate states typhoid as
the cause. The CEO denied knowledge of this death.
Her death does not appear to be part of the official death toll,
because the third official death reported on Friday was “a 46-year-old
woman [who] died in Kwamhlanga hospital” [Gabashane quoted in Mail
& Guardian]. I did not meet the family of this person, but yet I
saw three death certificates of other families confirming typhoid as
the cause of death. This is evidence that there are confirmed typhoid
are going unreported.
Here are details of the deaths of five other people whose families I
A 15-year old girl died in Witbank Hospital. She was buried last
Saturday. Initially she was sent to Delmas Hospital. She was put on a
drip, recovered, but became ill again. She was then sent to Witbank
Hospital where she died. Her death certificate says she died of
respiratory collapse. The family is convinced her death was related to
the current diarrhoea outbreak.
A 29-year old woman died at home on Tuesday. She will be buried
Saturday 17 September. She received treatment at hospital twice, but
was sent home where she died. The family says she had diarrhea and is
convinced she died of typhoid.
A 10-year old boy died in hospital and was buried last Sunday. The
death certificate confirms typhoid.
A 28-year-old woman died at home. She went to Delmas Hospital last
Tuesday, was treated and released. But she needed to return to hospital
on Thursday. According to the family, they were
told the hospital was closed. She died at home. She had diarrhea and a
headache before her death.
An 84-year-old died two weeks ago in Witbank Hospital. The death
certificate confirms typhoid fever.
If this is what I came across in one afternoon, the allegations from
multiple sources of underestimated deaths are at least plausible. My
colleague Nokhwezi Hoboyi therefore asked the Mpumalanga Provincial
Health Department for comment. She also tried unsuccessfully to get
comment from the National Department of Health.
Hoboyi spoke to the Mpumalanga health spokesperson, Mpho Gabashane. He
denied that they were
underestimating the number of deaths. He denied knowledge of deaths at
Delmas Hospital. He claimed only two people had died, both at Witbank
Hospital (this was shortly before the department confirmed the third
official typhoid death). Gabashane said that he did not understand why
we were making this a serious issue because the department was looking
I also spoke to a member of the Mpumalanga Department of Health and
asked her about the under-reporting of deaths. She explained that the
issue had now "become political" and they did not want to "create
She felt they would soon have the outbreak under control.
Msanyana Skhosana and a delegation from TAC were due to meet the mayor
of Nkangala district, which includes Delmas, on Friday to discuss the
outbreak. But the mayor had to cancel because of an urgent matter.
Members of the community are not only dissatisfied that government is
underestimating deaths. They are also dissatisfied with the response to
the outbreak. I was informed that a large protest took place in Delmas
Thursday to highlight the poor response to the outbreak. The exact
sequence of events that led to violence is unclear. But at some point
police used rubber bullets and one woman was shot in the shoulder and
had to be hospitalised. She has since been released.
A staff member at the hospital claimed that patients were not being
given sufficient medication. He claimed they are put on drips. They
recover and are then sent home. But they often come back a couple of
days later in worse condition. I do not have sufficient medical
knowledge to confirm the allegation that insufficient medication is
given to patients.
Tents have been established next to Delmas Hospital to handle the
overflow during the outbreak. We interviewed a number of patients in
the tents who complained they were too cold and that they were often
We also interviewed seven school children who were being treated in the
tents. They attend Sizuzile Primary school and complained about the
inadequate water supply being received at the school. We went to the
school and confirmed that Rand Water supplies the school with 32 x 20
litres per day. Either the supply is irregular, poorly timed or
inadequate, because when we went to the school, there was no water and
the children had no choice but to drink tap water, which is possibly a
source of contamination.
It was also brought to our attention that residents of Delmas town were
supplied with bottled water, but residents in the township were
supplied with tanks of water.
Despite the misery of the typhoid and diarrhoea outbreak, there is much
good work being done
in Delmas to contain it. Government has sent more personnel to the area
to deal with the outbreak. There is also a sense of urgency among
health-care workers who are clearly trying their best under difficult
We met Sister Lillian Cingo, the manager of the Phelophepha train,
which is a mobile clinic. They arrived in Delmas during the outbreak
and are trying to help wherever they can. They need more assistance
though. Sister Cingo says that they are trying to help but the number
is out of hand and preventing new cases must be a priority.
The South African Red Cross is also donating bottled water and
personnel to Delmas Hospital.
But much more is needed. A clean and adequate water supply is necessary
for the entire town. Government must make sure that sufficient doctors,
nurses and medicines are made available at Delmas Hospital and the
town's two clinics. The tents must be heated or alternative premises
must be found to deal with the overflow of patients. The possibility of
an outbreak of diseases other than typhoid needs to be considered. Most
importantly, complete honesty is needed about the extent of the
A regular supply of clean water to the school and community will stop
outbreaks of typhoid and diarrhea. This is government policy and it
must act with urgency to deliver.
Achieving all of the above requires genuine partnership and
decision-making with the local community.
We urge the media to send journalists to Delmas to investigate the
outbreak in depth. I have not released the names of most of my sources
families of the dead in this report, but I am willing to assist
accredited journalists who guarantee confidentiality and come to Delmas.
Contact: Sydney Masinga - 082 679 4721
FACTS ABOUT DELMAS
Population size: Approx. 55,000
Number of hospitals: One – Bernice Samuel Hospital (referred to as
Hospital in the above report). Bernice Hospital had 11 doctors, but one
resigned a few months ago and one has been sent to Witbank, so there
are currently nine.
Number of clinics: Two, one in the main town and one in the township.
An ambulance and minibus transport people from the clinic to the
hospital, a distance of about 4 kilometres.
[END OF NEWSLETTER]